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The one aim of Roman education was to fit a boy for public life, as advocate or [page 18] statesman, and generally both, and this was done by training him for public speaking. 362, forbade schoolmasters to teach except under decrees of the municipal councils, 'and that higher honour may accrue to the city schools', directed that these decrees should be submitted for imperial confirmation.

The rhetoric school, except for the very select few, like Cicero or Quintilian himself, who went to what is sometimes called the University of Athens, seems to have performed for the upper classes the function of the Secondary School and University, as well as that of the Inns of Court and Theological Colleges.

in that of Hannibal relating the passage of the Alps, and persuasive arguments (suasorias), as e.g. 'So that those old enough for more advanced studies remain at school and learn rhetoric of grammarians, with the absurd result that a boy is not thought fit to go to a master of speech before he has learnt how to speak.' Quintilian fixes no age at which boys should leave the grammar school for the school of rhetoric; except 'when they are fit'.

The rhetoricians would not teach anything but forensic or parliamentary speaking (deliberativas judicialesve materias), leaving to the grammarians speaking in fictitious characters (prosopopoias), as e.g.

It is surprising in view of the interest of the subject and the wealth of illustrative material; but it is not surprising when it is remembered that, before the year 1892, few guessed and fewer knew that there were any public or grammar schools - two terms for the same thing - in England at all, except Winchester and Eton, before the reputed creation of schools by that boy king. In fact, the Greek rhetorician was the intellectual father of the Oxford schoolman. speeches on the model of a minister introducing a bill or moving to repeal an act; and trying fictitious cases, preparatory for the Courts. 140-162, extended the system beyond Italy and 'bestowed honours and stipends on rhetoricians and philosophers in every province'. So that if 52 a year was the pay of a working man, the schoolmaster received 624 or 1248 a year. In the later Roman Empire endowed grammar and rhetoric schools were ubiquitous.

If anyone was pressed with the problem how learned persons from John of Salisbury in the twelfth to Cardinal Wolsey in the sixteenth century obtained the schooling which fitted them for their university careers, the solution was invariably sought in some monastery near their birthplace, which was, without the smallest proof, credited with keeping a school. In the rhetoric school, the boys at once began to practise public speaking. stating a case in the best way and language possible; then proceeding to speeches in supporting or attacking the statement ανασκευη or κατασκευη. whether the stories of the wolf of Romulus and the Egeria of Numa are true. is a successful lawyer or a successful soldier the greater man? It is clear from Quintilian that in his time the schools of rhetoric had got very far from life. In Trier, or Trèves, then the capital of the Western Empire, the rhetoric master was to draw 30 annonæ, the Latin grammar schoolmaster 20, and the Greek grammar schoolmaster, 'if a fit one can be gotten', 12 annonæ; a striking piece of evidence of the tendency to the disappearance of Greek from the schools of Northern and Western Europe, as the like words used by Colet in the statutes of his reformed St. The lives and writings of the [page 21] chief and earliest Latin 'doctor,' whom the Middle Ages worshipped, St.

A list of these in which the authorities, so far as they are not given in the text, can be verified in detail, is appended. He [page 22] concludes with rather obvious good sense that he hated Homer for the same reason as he supposes a Greek boy would have hated Virgil.

Educational Charters and Documents, lii and 582 pp. Gives the text and translation of salient documents illustrating the existence and conduct of schools from the first mention by Bede of the institution of a grammar school in East Anglia in 631, copied from that at Canterbury, to the scheme for Andover Grammar School in 1909. Latin being his mother-tongue he had learnt it naturally and without trouble, but Greek was dinned into him with difficulty and with fierce threats and punishments.

Grammar teaching Quintilian divides into two parts, the science of correct speech and the explanation of the poets, though it should not be confined to poets. 'Grammar', he says, 'is a necessity to boys, a pleasure to their elders, an [page 17] agreeable companion in retirement, and is the only branch of study which is of more use than show.' Grammar schools, Quintilian complains, then encroached on the rhetoric schools. A grammar schoolmaster must know music, since he has to teach metre, besides philology and grammar; astronomy and philosophy, as he has to explain Empedocles and Lucretius; and must have no small knowledge of rhetoric since he has to explain everything fully and clearly.Methuen's popular series of Antiquary's Books was readily accepted. 'I have never', he says, 'thoroughly understood why I hated Greek literature in which I was dipped as a little boy.The plan of these books, however, excludes references to authorities: an exclusion peculiarly unfortunate for historical statements, many of which are so contradictory to received opinions that they will appear at first sight incredible to a great many people, and which rest largely on manuscripts still for the most part unprinted and unpublished. For I liked Latin, not indeed that which the preparatory masters taught me (quas primi magistri), but that which those who are called grammarians (grammatici) teach.

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